This editorial in Nature Biotech’ from earlier this month would appear to paint an altogether different picture about the realities of cardiac stem cell “therapy”… https:///nbt/journal/v35/n4/full/ Along with critical editorials from Larry Husten at CardioBrief ( http:///2017/02/20/after-yet-another-failure-stem-cell-leaders-double-down/ ), it’s probably more accurate to state that the major contribution of Anversa and Leri (and some other prominent players) to the stem cell field, is to leave giant muddy footprints all over it! $10m doesn’t even come close to repaying the money wasted by other labs trying to clear up the resulting mess.
Transdermal patches (adhesive patches placed on the skin) may also be used to deliver a steady dose through the skin and into the bloodstream. Testosterone-containing creams and gels that are applied daily to the skin are also available, but absorption is inefficient (roughly 10%, varying between individuals) and these treatments tend to be more expensive. Individuals who are especially physically active and/or bathe often may not be good candidates, since the medication can be washed off and may take up to six hours to be fully absorbed. There is also the risk that an intimate partner or child may come in contact with the application site and inadvertently dose himself or herself; children and women are highly sensitive to testosterone and can suffer unintended masculinization and health effects, even from small doses. Injection is the most common method used by individuals administering AAS for non-medical purposes.