For Cyclosome™ preparation, an overall understanding of the interaction between CDs and lipid components of liposomes is necessary for this complex. Hi-Tech has developed a Double-loading technique, which is a revolutionary strategy to prohormone release and increase prohormone-loading capacity. The Cyclosome™ approach can be useful in increasing prohormone solubility and vesicles stability, in controlling the in vivo fate of hydrophobic compounds and in avoiding burst release of prohormones from the vesicles. To obtain a stable Cyclosome™, the CDs should have a higher affinity to prohormone molecules compared with liposomal membrane lipids. Cyclosomes prepared by Hi-Tech's double-loading technique are the most advanced targeted prohormone delivery system ever developed because they have a fast onset action with prolonged prohormone release process and the significantly enhanced prohormone-loading capacity.
Ecdysteroids elicit a rapid Ca2+ flux leading to Akt activation and increased protein synthesis in skeletal muscle cells.
Gorelick-Feldman J, Cohick W, Raskin I.
Biotech Center, Cook College, Rutgers University, 59 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.
Phytoecdysteroids, structurally similar to insect molting hormones, produce a range of effects in mammals, including increasing growth and physical performance. In skeletal muscle cells, phytoecdysteroids increase protein synthesis. In this study we show that in a mouse skeletal muscle cell line, C(2)C(12), 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE), a common phytoecdysteroid in both insects and plants, elicited a rapid elevation in intracellular calcium, followed by sustained Akt activation and increased protein synthesis. The effect was inhibited by a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) inhibitor, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, and a phosphoinositide kinase-3 (PI3K) inhibitor.