In the case of alkanes, mono-oxygenase attack results in the production of alcohol. Most microorganisms attack alkanes terminally whereas some perform sub-terminal oxidation. The alcohol product is oxidized finally into an aldehyde and finally to a fatty acid . The latter is degraded further by beta-oxidation. Different microorganisms exhibit different group specificities. For example, some grow on alkanes of six to ten carbons in chain length, whereas, others grow on long chain alkanes. Some of the oxygenases are encoded on plasmids and others on chromosomal genes. Subterminal oxidation apparently occurs in some bacterial species ( Markovetz and Kallio, 1971 ).
O-glycosylation, as well as phosphorylation, has been shown to have a beneficial effect in Alzheimer’s disease by reducing the formation of neurofibrillary tangles in neurons [ 37 ]. Glycosylation of prion (PrP), a cell surface protein and a transmissible agent, is a determinant of the final disease outcome in the host [ 38 ]. Recent characterization of glycosylation sites on apolipoprotein E (apoE) revealed a novel glycosylation site in addition to the already known sites as well as at least 8 new complex glycans in secreted and cellular apoE [ 39 ]. The involvement of apoE in Alzheimer’s disease, atherosclerosis, and immune responses is well documented, and this novel information can help gain insight towards understanding the mechanistic role of glycosylated apoE residues in these diseases [ 39 ]. Improper or incomplete glycosylation in the Fc receptor for immunoglobulin A has been shown to impact the IgA-mediated immune response which in turn affects many diseases including HIV, alcoholic liver cirrhosis, and other neuropathies [ 34 , 40 ].