Gentamicin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, is a highly effective topical treatment for bacterial infections of the skin. In vitro , gentamicin is bactericidal against a wide variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria isolated from domestic animals. 1,2 Specifically, gentamicin is active against the following organisms isolated from canine skin: Alcaligenes sp., Citrobacter sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa , indole-positive and negative Proteus sp, Escherichia coli , Enterobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp., and Streptococcus sp.
Topical corticosteroids are available in a wide range of different strengths, from Class 1 (very strong) to Class 7 (very weak). Stronger corticosteroids are generally more effective in reducing moderate to severe symptoms, such as thick, chronic plaques, but are also more likely to cause side effects 2 . Lower strength corticosteroids are generally better for milder symptoms and for very sensitive areas of the body (such as the face or groin areas) and stronger strengths are better for areas with thicker skin (such as the knees and elbows).
In a Phase 2 HPA clinical study [see Pharmacodynamics ], pharmacokinetics was evaluated in a subgroup of 12 adult subjects. On Day 8, blood was taken just prior to and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours following the last application. Plasma concentration of halobetasol propionate was measureable in all subjects. Based on the geometric mean plasma concentrations at 12 hour post-application across time, steady-state was achieved by Day 8. The mean (±standard deviation) Cmax concentrations for ULTRAVATE lotion on Day 8 was ± pg/mL, with the corresponding median Tmax value of 3 hours (range 0 – 6 hours); mean area under the halobetasol propionate concentration versus time curve over the dosing interval (AUCτ) was 1632 ± 1147 pg•h/mL.